Antiquity / Classical World

Ancient and Classical World

  • Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History, and Diplomacy - Choose the “Ancient Documents” box for a small collection of legal sources 
  • ETANA - Scanned images of materials found in archaeological digs - hieroglyphs, cuneiform, and alphabets. Slow-loading, dead links.
  • Eyewitness to History - The "ancient history" page on this site contains about two dozen brief documents, along with a short introduction. Egypt, Greece, and Rome (to Attila)
  • Hanover Historical Collection - Choose the "Ancient Greece and Roman" link (there are ten pre-Socratic philosophers there) 
  • Internet Ancient History Sourcebook (Fordham University)
  • Internet Classics Library - "Browse" the author list, or "Search" author, title, or keyword. Over 400 source documents. 
  • LacusCurtius: Into the Roman World - Scroll down the screen past the Capitoline Wolf to find about fifty Greek and Latin "Source Texts".
  • Leuven Database of Ancient Books (Trismegistos)
  • Perseus Digital Library - The largest part of the Perseus collection is devoted to the classical world. Browse the “Greek and Roman” collection, or search by name or keyword.
  • Theoi Greek Mythology - See images under the sidebar link "Galleries", and see texts on classical litertaure on the theme of mythology under "Classics Library". The site is also a reference guide to the topic.
  • Torry Seland's page provides more to documents from the Greco-Roman world. 
  • Vindolanda Tablets Online - An exhibition of wooden tablets found at the Roman fortress of Vindolanda near Hadrian's Wall in England, dating from the 2nd century AD. Administrative records, official reports, and personal records, in Latin transcription and English translation.

Byzantine Era

Early Christian Era

  • Christian Classics Ethereal Library - Early Church Fathers in English translation
  • Early Christian Writings contains some sources from the 1st & 2nd centuries. Use the tabs at the top of the page: NT, Apocrypha, Gnostics, Fathers, Other. Or search by date here
  • Early Church Fathers - Additional Texts - Church Fathers' texts not included in the Ante-Nicene, Nicene, and Post-Nicene volumes
  • Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Christian Origins (Fordham University)
  • Wesley Center Online (Early Christian Church Documents) - WCO is interested in religious writing from the Wesleyan tradition. But it contains documents of possible use to the historian on this "noncanonical literature" (i.e. non-Biblical literature)  page. Find works from the church fathers (e.g. Ignatius, Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Eusebius) under the "Fathers of the Christian Church" link, and the historian Josephus under the "Works of Josephus" link. You might find that the content of the "Links to Related Sites" is wanting in substance.
File:Greek - Black-figure Amphora - Walters 48224 - Detail A.jpg
Black-figure Amphora, Anonymous (Greece)
Wikimedia Commons courtesy The Walters Art Museum
No changes made. CC License

Europe: Medieval to Modern

European History (General)

  • AP European History Web - Primary European sources from the early modern period to the late-20th century. Choose the time period icon - the page will display topical websites - scroll down for primary sources. there are some very useful resources here, but prepare to be frustrated by quite a few deadlinks (if a document is not available, try copying-pasting the title into a web browser to see if it is online).
  • Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History, and Diplomacy - The site is universal in geographic extent, but contains many documents from Europe. Choose one of the “Century” boxes to view sources (16th to 21st centuries). 
  • BHO: British History Online - A collection of guides, maps, legal documents, and datasets, including both primary and secondary resources. The focus is on the period 1300-1800. The site is keyword-searchable; and you can limit your search on the sidebar to “Primary sources”.
  • Epistolae: Medieval Women's Letters - Letters to & from women during the 4th – 13th centuries. In English translation.
  • EuroDocs: Online Sources for European History - European history sources from ancient to modern times. Choose a time period, then select a country from the list; or, search by name or keyword. Eurodocs links to many other sites. 
  • Europeana - A gigantic multilingual portal containing millions of digitized records from Europe’s museums, libraries, archives, and media collections. There are search “Help” links at the bottom of the page. Otherwise, just type in a “Search” term (e.g. Hildegard of Bingen) then limit it by language, media type, etc. A bit unwieldy, but holds the potential of helping you unearth some real treasures.
  • Hanover Historical Collection - The collection has three links to European documents: Medieval (about a dozen Letters of Crusaders), Early Modern (topics include the Renaissance, Reformation, Witch trials and political documents from France & Britain), and Modern Europe (French Revolution, Socialism, and Russian Revolution).
  • Silk Road Narratives - A short list of texts describing connection and exchange between the Mediterranean world and Asia. Covers antiquity to the early modern periods.

Medieval Era

  • De Re Militari - The Society for Medieval Military History hosts primary documents as well as other military resources on the Middle Ages (journal articles, book chapters, theses, etc.) 
  • Florilegium Urbanum - Documents on medieval English urban life. Sources are collected under four tabs: Community, Economy; Government; & Lifecycle.
  • Internet Medieval Sourcebook (Fordham University) - Use the sidebar to view medieval topics. 
  • Medieval Worlds: A Sourcebook [TWU login required]
  • Monastic Matrix - Documents on women’s religious communities from 400-1600AD. Choose “Cartularium” for written sources; “Figurae” for images.


Early Modern Era

  • Eyewitness to History -  The "18th Century" page on this site contains short or excerpted documents from European and American history, along with an introductory annotation to each.  Above the results list, buttons link you to other useful document lists: 19th century, 20th century, and WWI & WWII.

Nineteenth Century to Present


  • British Cartoon Archive - Social & political cartoon scans from 1904- . (University of Kent)
  • British History Online - Extensive primary sources
  • British Pathe - Thousands of news and video clips from 1896-1970
  • The Carlyle Letters Online - 10,000 letters of Thomas & Jane Carlyle, 19th century England
  • ConnectedHistories - British history from 1500-1900. Search 22 collections of documents (parliamentary records, church papers, newspapers, county records, etc.) Some resources are free; others are by subscription only.
  • English Historical Documents Online - Contains over 5,500 expertly indexed and fully searchable primary documents from 500-1914. The sources include treaties, statutes, declarations, government and cabinet proceedings, military dispatches, orders, acts, sermons, newspaper articles, pamphlets, personal and official letters, diaries and more.
  • London Lives - Parish archives, criminal, hospital, and coroner records listing the names of more than 3 million working class Londoners
  • The National Archives (UK) - See the “Explore our records” tab for various search options. TNA is the national repository of public sector records.
  • Proceedings of the Old Bailey - London’s Criminal Court 1674-1913. Ssearchable database containing 197,745 criminal trials held at this court
  • Victorian Dictionary - This personal project of Lee Jackson is a compendium of topics including architecture, charities, crime, education, entertainment, maps, police, professions & trades, religion, and transportation. 
  • Victorian Women Writers Project - 200 full text works of about 60 women. Search by author or title, or compare keywords across the collection. Literature, political pamphlets, and histories from the second-half of the 19th century.
  • Victorian Web - The VW is an encyclopedic reference site with many secondary source articles and essays. To find its modest collection of primary sources see the "Victorian Texts" link.
  • Views of the Famine - The Irish Famine of 1846-47. Contemporary newspaper articles & illustrations from the Illustrated London News, Cork Examiner, Punch, Pictorial Times, and others.

British expeditionary force move artillery over the Ethiopian highlands
Published in the London Illustrated News 1868
Wikimedia Commons. Public Domain


  • French Revolution Digital Archive (FRDA) - Two collections: primary source text from the French Parliamentary Archives, and a huge image collection of events of the revolution. A lot of the text is French language. Use the sidebar limiters to focus your search. Also see the French Revolution link below: Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
  • Gallica: National Library of France - Contains hundreds of thousands of scanned documents, magazines, booklets, images, manuscripts, etc. English language homepage, but most of the resources are French language.
  • Liberty, Equality, Fraternity - Several hundred texts and images of topics in the French Revolution. Use the 'Search', 'Browse', or 'Explore' links to navigate. Also see the French Revolution link above: French Revolution Digital Archive

"Storming of the Bastille" by Jean-Pierre-Louis-Laurent Houel
Wikimedia: Public Domain


  • GHDI: German History in Documents and Images - A fine collection of primary documents on Germany’s social, political, and cultural history from 1500 – present. Choose “English” (if necessary), then click one of the images to see the chronological Table of Contents; then choose “Documents” 
  • G-Text Primary Source Archives (Germany) - Modern German history documents in English translation, including: Kaiserreich 1871-1918; National Socialist Era 1933-1945; Nazi & East German Propaganda. This links from the H-German page of H-net.org)
  • Taube Archive of the International Military Tribunal (IMT) at Nuremberg, 1945–46: https://virtualtribunals.stanford.edu/nuremberg (Documents from the Nuremberg Trials)

 Soviet Union

  • The Soviet Social System Online (The Harvard Project) - “Transcripts of 705 interviews conducted with refugees from the USSR during the early years of the Cold War. A unique source for the study of Soviet society between 1917 and the mid-1940s… Includes…data on political, economic, social and cultural conditions”
"Ban Religious Holidays"
Anti-religious poster from the Soviet era 
Wikimedia Commons. Author unknown
Public Domain

Gale / Cengage Collection

"Points to the Past" is an enormous collection of primary resource materials (nearly 200,000,000 pages of digitized content) that is available to you in full text. The collection includes maps, photos, newspapers, pamphlets, sermons, poems, and other resources. NOTE: This material is made available through BC Government funding and is accessible only from within British Columbia.

There are more than thirty collections of documents in the set. One of them - the "Gale NewsVault" - contains ten sub-collections of newspaper resources such as:
  • 19th Century UK Periodicals: Empire
  • 19th Century U.S. Newspapers
  • Times Digital Archive 1785-1985
  • Illustrated London News Historical Archive 1842-2003
  • Times Literary Supplement Historical Archive 1902-2005
  • Financial Times Historical Archive 1888-2006
The collection is predominantly related to records in British and North American history.
See all of the collection titles here.

Print Resources - Antiquity / Classical World

Greek and Roman world: Primary documents in print 

Find them in the library:
And You Welcomed Me: Sourcebook on Hospitality in Early Christianity
BV4647.H67 A53 2001
Christianity and the Roman Empire: Background Texts
BR167 .N69 2001
Christianity Through the Thirteenth Century
BR162.2 .C487 1970
Christology after Chalcedon
BT198 .T63 1998
Complete Works of Josephus
DS116 .J67 1900Z
Flavius Josephus
Woodcut by William Whiston
Wikimedia image. Public Domain
Donatist Martyr Stories: the Church in Conflict
BT1370 .D6 1996
Early Jewish Liturgy: Sourcebook of Early Christian Liturgy
BM660 .E25 2001
Evagrius of Pontus: the Greek Ascetic Corpus
BR65.E92 E54 2003
From Irenaeus to Grotius: a Sourcebook in Christian Political Thought
BR 115.P7 F746 1999     
Gnosticism: Source Book of Heretical Writings
BT1390 .G586 1978
Gregory of Nyssa: the Letters
BR65.G74 E5 2007
Marriage in the Early Church
BR 195.M37 M37 1992
Notices of the Jews and Their Country by the Classic Writers of Antiquity
DS102 .G44 1972
Paganism and Christianity
BR128 .R7 P34 1992
Pagans and Christians in Late Antiquity: a Sourcebook
BR128.R7 L44 2000
Political Letters and Speeches (Saint Ambrose)
BR1720.A5 A4 2005
St. Paul’s Corinth: Texts and Archaeology
DF 261.C65 M87 1983
The Fathers of the Church
BR67 .D7613 2007
The Jewish Temple: a Non-Biblical Sourcebook
BM655 .J49 1996
The Mass: Ancient Liturgies and Patristic Texts
BX2230.5 .H313 1967
Theological Anthropology
BT701.2.B87 1981
Tradition, Scripture, and Interpretation
BR 160.A2 T73 2006
Understandings of the Church
BV598 .U54 1986
Many more print documents from the classical world can be found here

Print Resources - Europe: Medieval

Medieval Europe: Primary documents in print 
Find them in the library:
Carolingian Civilization: a Reader
DC70 .C338 1993
Charlemagne & Pippin
Charlemagne & Pippin
Artist unknown
   Wikimedia image. Public Domain
From Irenaeus to Grotius: Political Thought 100-1625
BR115.P7 F746 1999
Late Merovingian France, 640-720
DC64.7 .L38 1996
Medieval Worlds: a Sourcebook
D113.5.M43 2003
Scientific Achievement of the Middle Ages
Q 153.D34 1973
The Other Middle Ages: Witnesses at the Margins
HN11 .O87 1998
Western Societies: Primary Sources in Social History
HN8.W44 1993
Many more print documents from the Middle Ages can be found here.


Print Resources - Europe: Early Modern

Early Modern Europe: Primary documents in print
Find them in the library:
Culture and Belief in Europe 1450-1600: Anthology of Sources
D 220.C85 1990
Rationalism and Revolution 1660-1815: a Documentary History
D 411.D63 1979
Christopher Columbus6.jpg
Old world meets new.
Columbus' unexpected landfall in San Salvador,
1492 was one of the early events of Europe's
transition into the early modern period.
Wikimedia image. Artist unknown. Public domain.
Religion & Society in Early Modern Europe: a Sourcebook
BR 756.R445 2005
Renaissance Reader
PN 721.R45 1997
The Enlightenment: a Brief History with Documents
CB411 .J327 2001
Western Societies: Primary Sources in Social History
HN8.W44 1993 
Many more print documents from Early Modern Europe can be found here.

Print Resources - Europe: Modern

Modern Europe: Primary documents in print

Find them in the library:
Age of Conflict: Readings in 20th Century European History
D 414.A44 1997
Age of Imperialism
DA 18.A34 1969
Eastern Europe: Transformations and Revolution 1945-1991
DJK 50. E167 1992
File:Gabé Paris revolution 1830 2.jpg
Nicholas-Edward Gabe's canvas of the
July Revolution of 1830, Paris.
Wikimedia image. Public domain.
Modern Europe: Sources and Perspectives
D 299 .M56 2003
Politics and Empire in Victorian Britain: a Reader
JV 1017.P65 2001
Western Societies: Primary Sources in Social History
HN 8.W44 1993
Many more print documents from Modern Europe can be found here.