Geography / Geology / Environmental Studies

Citation Styles

Most courses at TWU require that citations be formatted according to one of three styles: APAChicago/Turabian, or MLA.

Purdue University's Online Writing Lab provides overviews for all major styles and gives examples for how to cite resources and organize papers according to each style. APA 7th editionMLA 9th edition, and Chicago 17th edition.

However, for more unusual citations, try an internet search for something like this: MLA style guide [youtube video]. The words in the square brackets are the type of media you're searching for. Be sure that the sites you use are reputable, such as a library associated with a university.

The Library has print copies of the most recent editions of APA, Chicago/Turabian, and MLA. See info below. You may also ask a librarian or contact the writing centre for help with citations.

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (Seventh edition.).
            (2020). American Psychological Association.

(Call number: BF76.7 .P83 2020) 

Iida, P. (2020). The Concise APA Handbook: APA 7th Edition: Vol. APA 7th edition.
            Information Age Publishing.

(ebook available via this link)

The Chicago manual of style (Seventeenth edition.). (2017). The University of

(Call number: Z253 .U69 2017)

MLA Handbook Plus, electronic resource

MLA handbook (Eighth edition.). (2016). The Modern Language Association of

(Call number: LB2369 .G53 2016)

Citing Indigenous Elders & Knowledge Keepers

Formats for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers in APA, visit citation guidelines from Simon Fraser University.

See also: MacLeod, L. (2021). More than personal communication: Templates for citing indigenous elders and knowledge keepers. KULA: Knowledge Creation, Dissemination, and Preservation Studies 5(1).
(Full Text)

Introduction to Citations and Citation Styles

Knowhow instructional video by University of Massachusetts Lowell, O'Leary Library Media Center

(Open to full screen. If video does not load, go to