State your Research Question – How can the healthcare system in Canada best overcome systemic racism?
1. OneSearch Database Search
a. Do a search related to your research question in OneSearch, choosing the Articles tab.
b. On the results page, limit your search results, using one or more subject headings from the Limit by Subject section in the column to the left of your results.
c. List the search terms/subject headings you used.
“systemic racism” AND healthcare AND Canada / Subject: institutional racism
d. Create a list of 6 citations in proper APA, MLA or Turabian format. Put them in alphabetical order by author, and do not number them.
El-Mowafi, I. M., Yalahow, A., Idriss-Wheeler, D., & Yaya, S. (2021). The politest form of racism: sexual and reproductive health and rights paradigm in Canada. Reproductive Health, 18(1), 1–5. https://doi-org.twu.idm.oclc.org/10.1186/s12978-021-01117-8
Fraser, S. L., Gaulin, D., & Fraser, W. D. (2021). Dissecting systemic racism: policies, practices and epistemologies creating racialized systems of care for Indigenous peoples. International Journal for Equity in Health, 20(1), 1–5. https://doi-org.twu.idm.oclc.org/10.1186/s12939-021-01500-8
Gajaria, A., Guzder, J., & Rasasingham, R. (2021). What’s race got to do with it? A proposed framework to address racism’s impacts on child and adolescent mental health in Canada. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 30(2), 131–137.
Matthews, R. (2019). Health ethics and indigenous ethnocide. Bioethics, 33(7), 827–834.
Noor El-Dassouki, Dorothy Wong, Deanna M. Toews, Jagbir Gill, Beth Edwards, Ani Orchanian-Cheff, Paula Neves, Lydia-Joi Marshall, & Istvan Mucsi. (2021). Barriers to accessing kidney transplantation among populations marginalized by race and ethnicity in Canada: A scoping review part 2—East Asian, South Asian, and African, Caribbean, and Black Canadians. Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease, 8. https://doi-org.twu.idm.oclc.org/10.1177/2054358121996834
Sanzone, L., Doucette, E., Fansia, N., Fu, C., Kim, E., Lo, K. P., Malhi, P., & Sawatsky, T. (2019). Indigenous approaches to healing in critical care settings: Addressing the Truth and Reconciliation Report’s calls to action. Canadian Journal of Critical Care Nursing, 30(3), 14–21.
2. Individual Database Search
a. From the OneSearch main search box on the library home page, choose Databases and navigate to a database relevant to your research question. Indicate the name of the database (note that there is no such database as EBSCO. We have multiple EBSCO databases, each with its own name, e.g. Business Source Complete). CINAHL (nursing database)
b. List the search terms/subject headings you used. If the database uses subject headings you must include subject headings in your search. For example, you might have searched Business Source Complete with the keyword "Delegating." In the column to the left of your results, you will find Subject Major Heading, with the subject heading Delegation of authority. Be sure you indicate: Keyword: Delegating; Subject heading: Delegation of authority.
“Systemic racism” AND healthcare / Subject: systemic racism [I needed to drop “Canada” to get enough results.]
c. Create a list of 6 citations in proper APA, MLA or Turabian format. Put them in alphabetical order by author, and do not number them.
Berger, J. T., & Miller, D. R. (2021). Health disparities, systemic racism, and failures of cultural competence. American Journal of Bioethics, 21(9), 4–10. https://doi-org.twu.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/15265161.2021.1915411
Dancis, J., & Coleman, B. R. (2022). Transformative dissonant encounters: Opportunities for cultivating antiracism in White nursing students. Nursing Inquiry, 29(1), 1–14. https://doi-org.twu.idm.oclc.org/10.1111/nin.12447
Hardeman, R. R., Homan, P. A., Chantarat, T., Davis, B. A., & Brown, T. H. (2022). Improving the measurement of structural racism to achieve antiracist health policy. Health Affairs, 41(2), 179–186. https://doi-org.twu.idm.oclc.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2021.01489
Roberts, K. M., & Trejo, A. N. (2022). Provider, heal thy system: An examination of institutionally racist healthcare regulatory practices and structures. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 44(1), 4–15. https://doi-org.twu.idm.oclc.org/10.1007/s10591-021-09630-5
Shippee, T. P., Fabius, C. D., Fashaw-Walters, S., Bowblis, J. R., Nkimbeng, M., Bucy, T. I., Duan, Y., Ng, W., Akosionu, O., & Travers, J. L. (2022). Evidence for action: addressing systemic racism across long-term services and supports. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 23(2), 214–219. https://doi-org.twu.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2021.12.018
Tremblay, M.-C. (2021). Cultural safety: a key concept for health promotion in times of Covid-19 and systemic racism “syndemic.” Health Promotion International, 36(6), 1517–1520. https://doi-org.twu.idm.oclc.org/10.1093/heapro/daab201
3. Do a similar search in Google Scholar, indicate your search terms you used, and list 6 relevant articles. You can include journal articles, book chapters, doctoral dissertations, and conference presentations, but no books. Note that Google Scholar does not use subject headings, nor does it use truncation (*). Be sure to log into Google Scholar through the TWU library home page to connect your citations with any full text to which the library subscribes.
Clicking on the quotation mark below any citation will enable you to create citations. (Note that some Google Scholar data is incomplete, resulting in incomplete citations. In such cases, you will need to find the rest of the data and insert it yourself. This is best done by clicking on the title, which will take you to the original source of the citation and provide you more information.)
“systemic racism” AND healthcare AND Canada
Boyer, Y. (2017). Healing racism in Canadian health care. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 189(46), E1408-E1409.
Dryden, O., & Nnorom, O. (2021). Time to dismantle systemic anti-Black racism in medicine in Canada. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 193(2), E55-E57.
El-Mowafi, I. M., Yalahow, A., Idriss-Wheeler, D., & Yaya, S. (2021). The politest form of racism: Sexual and reproductive health and rights paradigm in Canada. Reproductive Health, 18(1), 1-5.
Goodman, A., Fleming, K., Markwick, N., Morrison, T., Lagimodiere, L., Kerr, T., & Society, W. A. H. R. (2017). “They treated me like crap and I know it was because I was Native”: The healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples living in Vancouver's inner city. Social Science & Medicine, 178, 87-94.
Phillips-Beck, W., Eni, R., Lavoie, J. G., Avery Kinew, K., Kyoon Achan, G., & Katz, A. (2020). Confronting racism within the Canadian healthcare system: Systemic exclusion of First Nations from quality and consistent care. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(22), 8343.
Sexton, S. M., Richardson, C. R., Schrager, S. B., Bowman, M. A., Hickner, J., Morley, C. P., ... & Weiss, B. D. (2021). Systemic racism and health disparities: Statement from editors of family medicine journals. Canadian Family Physician, 67(1), 13-14.
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